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Retrieved 23 July Video game content rating system. Multiplayer video games are those that can be played either competitively, sometimes in Electronic Sports , or cooperatively by using either multiple input devices, or by hotseating. I'm sure you've noticed that I've made no reference to the Nintendo craze that has repeated the Atari and Mattel Phenomenon of 8 years ago. The term "emergent narrative" has been used to describe how, in a simulated environment, storyline can be created simply by "what happens to the player.

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It became one of the best-selling games on the system and was a breakthrough for the genre. Rescue in Gargamel's Castle was released on the ColecoVision that same year, adding uneven terrain and scrolling pans between static screens. Manic Miner and its sequel Jet Set Willy continued this style of multi-screen levels on home computers. Monty Mole won the first ever award for Best Platform game in The term platform game is somewhat ambiguous, particularly when referring to games that predate the widespread, international use of the term.

The concept of a platform game as it was defined in its earliest days is somewhat different from how the term is commonly used today. Following the release of Donkey Kong , a genre of similarly-styled games emerged characterized by a profile view a number of tiers connected by ladders. The two most common gameplay goals were to get to the top of the screen or to collect all of a particular item.

By press in the UK began referring to these tiers as "platforms" and started calling these titles "platform games" not long after. The term "platform game" has since gained wide use in North America, and across Europe, and since the earliest uses the concept has evolved, particularly as the genre peaked in popularity during the early s. Many of the games that were part of the early platform genre, such as Donkey Kong and Miner er , are still regarded as platform games in the modern sense.

The first platform game to use scrolling graphics came years before the genre became a trend. As part of a nascent genre, its development was not strongly influenced by existing conventions, nor was it said to be a major influence on games immediately after it.

Jump Bug offered a glimpse of what was to come, with uneven, independently suspended platforms and levels that scroll both horizontally and vertically. Only a few home systems of the early s had hardware support for smooth background scrolling—most notably the Atari 8-bit family. Nevertheless, Sierra On-Line released B. The same year, a scrolling platform game appeared on the Commodore 64 and Atari home computers called Snokie. Based on the Saturday morning cartoon rather than the maze game, Namco's Pac-Land is a bidirectional, horizontally-scrolling, arcade platformer with walking, running, jumping, springboards, and a series of unique levels.

Nintendo's platform game Super Mario Bros. The title was bundled with Nintendo systems in North America, Japan, and Europe, and went on to sell over 40 million copies, according to the Guinness Book of World Records.

Its success as a pack-in led many companies to see platform games as vital to their success, and contributed greatly to popularizing the genre during the 8-bit console generation. It's a platformer that features horizontal and vertical scrolling levels, the ability to punch enemies and obstacles, and shops where the player can buy power-ups and vehicles.

Some of the bosses are fought through a minigame of rock-paper-scissors where others you have to fight or crash the Sukopako "motorbike" into a pirate bear. The environments are varied, including mountains, caves, oceans, forests, and underwater segments.

The original Wonder Boy in was inspired more by Pac-Land than Super Mario Bros , and features skateboarding segments that gives the game a greater sense of speed than other platformers at the time, [22] while its sequel, Wonder Boy in Monster Land , takes the series in a new direction by combining action-adventure and action role-playing elements with traditional platforming.

Scrolling platformers went portable in the late s with games such as Super Mario Land , and the genre continued to maintain its popularity, with many titles released for the handheld Game Boy and Game Gear systems. Because of their small size, technical constraints, and blurring associated with the LCD technology, fast-paced action-based platformers were more difficult to develop for these handheld systems. Because of this, many early handheld platformers leaned towards slower-paced play styles and a greater emphasis on puzzles.

During Sixth Generation and early Seventh generations, home consoles largely transitioned to 3D games and handhelds became a bastion for traditional side-scrolling platform games, until the release of New Super Mario Bros. Wii revived interest in the subgenre on consoles.

New Super Mario Bros. One of the first platform games to scroll in all four directions freely and follow the on-screen character's movement is in a vector game called Major Havoc , which comprises a number of mini-games, including a simple platformer, a shoot 'em up sequence, a landing sequence, and a Breakout clone.

In , Enix released an open world platform-adventure game, Brain Breaker. Another platform-adventure released that year, Pony Canyon 's Super Pitfall , was critically panned for its vagueness and weak game design. That same year Jaleco released Esper Boukentai , a platform-action sequel to Psychic 5 that scrolled in all directions and allowed the player character to make huge multistory jumps, which were necessary to navigate the giant, vertically oriented levels. In , Capcom 's Mega Man introduced non-linear level progression where the player is able to choose the order in which they completed the games levels.

This was a stark contrast to both linear games like Super Mario Bros. GamesRadar credits the "level select" feature of Mega Man as the basis for the non-linear mission structure found in most open-world, multi-mission, sidequest -heavy games.

The advent of bit home consoles marked an evolutionary step for the genre. By the time the Genesis and Super NES launched, platform games were the most popular genre in home console gaming and were seen as vital for winning the console war.

There was a particular emphasis on having a flagship platform title exclusive to a format, featuring a mascot character.

The title was only modestly successful, and Sega realized it needed a stronger mascot to move Genesis units. That same year, Capcom released the platformer Strider , which scrolled in multiple directions and allowed the player to summon artificial intelligence AI partners, such as a droid, tiger, and hawk, to help fight enemies. In order to fend off the new competition, Sega released Sonic the Hedgehog. Sonic featured large stages that scrolled effortlessly in all directions, as well as all manner of uneven terrain, curved hills, and a complex physics system that allowed players to rush through its levels with well-placed jumps and rolls.

Lastly, there was the game's eponymous main character. Sega decided to give Sonic a rebellious personality in order to appeal to older gamers, [37] and super speed to help show off the Genesis' hardware capabilities. The game proved to be a massive hit, was a successful pack-in with new systems, and cemented the view that platform games would make or break a console.

The Sonic character was seen as a new model for mascots in the early s, particularly for his perceived attitude, which characterized him as a rebel. This attitude would soon become the status quo, as companies attempted to duplicate Sonic's success with their own brightly colored anthropomorphisms. These mascots, which included Gex , Mr. A second generation of platform games for computers appeared alongside the new wave of consoles. Prince of Persia featured an unprecedented level of animation.

Games like Shadow of the Beast and Turrican showed that platformers on the Atari ST and Amiga could be respectible in their own right, while many others were forgettable attempts to mimic the titles flooding the Sega Genesis and Super Nintendo markets.

The abundance of platformers for bit consoles continued late into the generation, with successful games such as Vectorman , Donkey Kong Country 2: Yoshi's Island , but the release of new hardware caused players' attention to shift away from traditional 2D genres.

The 2D Rayman was a big success on bit consoles. Symphony of the Night revitalized its series and established a new foundation for later Castlevania games. Oddworld and Heart of Darkness kept the subgenre born from Prince of Persia alive. The difficulties of adapting platform gameplay to three dimensions led some developers to compromise by pairing the visual flash of 3D with traditional 2D side scrolling gameplay.

These games are often referred to as 2. The game featured levels and boss characters rendered in 3D, but retained 2D gameplay and used pre-rendered 2D sprites for regular characters, similar to Donkey Kong Country. Its sequel improved upon its design, featuring some 3D effects such as hopping between the foreground and background, and the camera panning and curving around corners.

Meanwhile, Pandemonium and Klonoa brought the 2. In a break from the past, the Nintendo 64 had the fewest side scrolling platformers with only four; Yoshi's Story , Kirby The term 3D platformer usually refers to games that feature gameplay in three dimensions and polygonal 3D graphics.

Games that have 3D gameplay but 2D graphics are usually included under the umbrella of isometric platformers , while those that have 3D graphics but gameplay on a 2D plane are called 2. The first attempts to bring platform games into 3D used 2D graphics and an isometric perspective.

These games are nearly as old as the genre itself, one of the earliest examples being Sega's Congo Bongo in The first platformers to simulate a 3D perspective and moving camera emerged in the early-mids. An early example of this was Konami 's platform game Antarctic Adventure , [46] where the player controls a penguin in a forward-scrolling third-person perspective while having to jump over pits and obstacles.

It was notable for being one of the first stereoscopic 3-D games. It allowed players to move in all directions, but it did not allow movement along more than one axis at once; the player could move orthogonally but not diagonally.

Its characters were pre-rendered sprites, much like the earlier Clockwork Knight. The game played very similarly to 2D platformers, but it was considered a true 3D title, and let players walk up walls and on ceilings.

It was a moderate success, and spawned a sequel called Bug Too! Entitled Fade to Black , it was the first attempt to bring a popular 2D platform game series into 3D. While it retained the puzzle-oriented level design style and step-based control, and bore a strong resemblance to its predecessor, it did not meet the criteria of a platform game, and was billed as an action adventure. Fade to Black would set the stage for other series, such as Metroid and Duke Nukem , that would gradually shift away from the traditional platform formula while retaining many of its gameplay conventions.

There was a great deal of pressure on Sony, Sega, and Nintendo to release mascot platformers before the holiday season. Sony chose to adopt an existing project by developers Naughty Dog , a small developer at the time, who had recently released the questionable Way of the Warrior.

The move paid off; their game, Crash Bandicoot , beat Nintendo's new console to market in North America and was released in time for the holiday in Japan. Crash would remain Sony's unofficial mascot for the next several years before switching to multi-platform releases in the following console generation.

Sega did not fare as well. Their project, titled Sonic Xtreme , was to have featured a radically different approach for the series, with an exaggerated fisheye camera and multidirectional gameplay reminiscent of Bug! Its development was rocky, due in part to conflicts with Sega Enterprises in Japan and a rushed schedule, and the game never made it to market.

In , a small developer called Exact released a game for the X computer called Geograph Seal. The game was a fully 3D polygonal first-person shooter hybrid with a pronounced platform jumping component. Players piloted a frog-like mech that could jump and then double-jump or triple-jump high into the air, as the camera panned down to help players line up their landings. In addition to shooting, jumping on enemies was a primary means of attack. The following year, Exact released their follow-up to Geograph Seal as an early title for Sony's new PlayStation console.

The frog-like mech was traded in for a more cartoony rabbit mech, called Robbit. Beyond this, the level design had an even greater focus on platform hopping, and it was released in Europe and North America as a launch title , helping it gain a much higher profile. The title was successful enough to receive two sequels, and is remembered as the first 3D platformer on a console. Floating Runner used D-pad controls and a behind-the-character camera perspective. Nintendo released Super Mario 64 in Before then, there was no established paradigm for bringing platform games into 3D.

Mario 64 set a new standard, and it was imitated by many subsequent 3D platformers. Its gameplay allowed players to explore open 3D environments with greater freedom than any previous attempt at a 3D platform game. To aid this, Nintendo added an analog control stick to its Nintendo 64 controller, something which had not been included in a standard console controller since the Vectrex , and which has since become standard on other controllers.

This allowed for the finer precision needed for a free perspective. Players no longer followed a linear path to the ends of levels, either, with most levels providing objective-based goals. There were a handful of boss levels that offered more traditional platforming.

Super Mario 64 brought a change in the goals of some platformers. In most 2D platformers, the player only had to reach a single goal to complete a level, but in Mario 64 each level contained a mission based structure that rewarded items needed to unlock new areas. Many 3D platformers followed this trend such as Banjo-Kazooie , Spyro the Dragon , and Donkey Kong 64 creating the "collectathon" genre.

This allowed for more efficient use of large 3D areas and rewarded the player for thorough exploration of their environment, but also contained less jumping and involved more elements of action-adventure games. As platform games settled into this new free-roaming model, it became necessary for developers to program a dynamic, intelligent camera. This was a non-issue with 2D platformers, which were able to maintain a fixed viewpoint. The addition of a free camera also made it more difficult for players to judge the exact height and distance of platforms, making jumping puzzles more difficult.

Some of the more linear 3D platformers, like Tork: Prehistoric Punk and Wario World used scripted cameras that allowed for minimal player control. Others with more open environments, such as Super Mario 64 and Banjo Kazooie , needed intelligent cameras that follow the players movements. RPGs , first person shooters , and more complex action-adventure games were all capturing more market share.

Also, many of the Nintendo 64 's best sellers were first and second-party platformers like Super Mario 64 , Banjo-Kazooie , and Donkey Kong By the sixth generation era , platformers were no longer seen as hot system sellers. It used a hub structure like Mario 64 but featured more linear, action-oriented levels with an emphasis on speed. Although the game was a hit, it was not enough to save the Dreamcast from an early discontinuation in Nintendo launched its GameCube console without a platform game, but in , it released Super Mario Sunshine , the second 3D Mario game.

While the title was well received at the time of its release, it has since received criticism regarding such factors as its short length, lack of location variety, and level design, which featured an abundance of open space, making for a much slower-paced game.

Other notable 3D platformers trickled out during this generation. Maximo was a spiritual heir to the Ghosts'n Goblins series. Billy Hatcher and the Giant Egg offered Yuji Naka 's take on a Mario 64 -influenced platformer, and Psychonauts became a critical darling based on its imaginative levels and colorful characters.

Rayman ' s popularity continued, though the franchise's third game was not as well received as the first two. Platformers remained a vital genre, but they never recaptured the popularity they once held. Other forms of third-person action games have cut into the sales of platformers, while genres such as RPGs and first-person shooters have continued to grow in popularity. Despite a much smaller presence in the overall gaming market, some platform games continue to be successful into the seventh generation of consoles.

Tools of Destruction to positive critical and fan reaction. In , LittleBigPlanet paired traditional 2D platform game mechanics with physics simulation and user created content , earning strong sales and critical reaction. Electronic Arts released Mirror's Edge , which coupled platform gameplay with a first-person camera, but avoided marketing the game as a platformer because of the association the label had developed with games geared toward younger audiences. Two Crash Bandicoot platform games were also released and Nintendo has revived the genre in recent years, releasing numerous platform games to high sales.

Squeak Squad also have strong sales, and keep the genre active. After the success of New Super Mario Bros. These range from classic revivals such as Bionic Commando: The Shake Dimension , released in , was a platformer that featured completely two-dimensional graphics and a rich visual style. Wii is particularly notable, as unlike the majority of 2D platformers in the 21st century, it was a direct release for a non-portable console, and not restricted on a content delivery network.

The success of New Super Mario Bros. Wii led to Nintendo releasing similar 2D platformer games for their classic franchises the following year: In , independent developer Frozenbyte released Trine , a 2.

The game proved to be a commercial success, eventually selling more than 1. It spawned a sequel, Trine 2 , which was released in In , Nintendo released two more 2D platform games: U for the Wii U. Nintendo has also released 3D platform games with gameplay elements of 2D platform games, namely Super Mario 3D Land for the 3DS in and Super Mario 3D World for the Wii U in , the latter of which also included cooperative multiplayer gameplay.

Each has achieved critical and commercial success. These games included Yooka-Laylee , the spiritual successor to the Banjo-Kazooie franchise, and A Hat in Time , both of which were crowdfunded on the website Kickstarter. The release of Super Mario Odyssey on the Nintendo Switch , which was an updated return to the open Ended gameplay style popularized by Super Mario 64 , saw some of the most critical acclaim in the franchise's history.

The Crash Bandicoot N. Sane Trilogy compilation on the PlayStation 4 sold over two million copies worldwide, and some critics noted the increased difficulty from the original PlayStation games. There are many games that are platformers that do not adhere to any of the subgenres below, but the following are some of the more recognizable archetypes for different platform styles. There are many more vaguely defined subgenres that are not mentioned here because they are not as easily defined.

Puzzle platformers are characterized by their use of a platform game structure to drive a game whose challenge is derived primarily from puzzles. They must then learn the game controls and how the human-machine interface works, including menus and HUDs. Beyond such skills, which after some time become quite fundamental and are taken for granted by many gamers, video games are based upon the player navigating and eventually mastering a highly complex system with many variables.

This requires a strong analytical ability, as well as flexibility and adaptability. He argues that the process of learning the boundaries, goals, and controls of a given game is often a highly demanding one that calls on many different areas of cognitive function. Indeed, most games require a great deal of patience and focus from the player, and, contrary to the popular perception that games provide instant gratification, games actually delay gratification far longer than other forms of entertainment such as film or even many books.

Learning principles found in video games have been identified as possible techniques with which to reform the U.

Army has deployed machines such as the PackBot and UAV vehicles, which make use of a game-style hand controller to make it more familiar for young people. A study of 33 laparoscopic surgeons found that those who played video games were 27 percent faster at advanced surgical procedures and made 37 percent fewer errors compared to those who did not play video games. A second study of laparoscopic surgeons 82 percent men; 18 percent women also showed that surgeons who played video games requiring spatial skills and hand dexterity and then performed a drill testing these skills were significantly faster at their first attempt and across all 10 trials than the surgeons who did not play the video games first.

An experiment carried out by Richard De Lisi and Jennifer Woldorf demonstrates the positive effect that video games may have on spatial skills.

De Lisi and Woldorf took two groups of third graders, one control group and one experiment group. Both groups took a paper-and-pencil test of mental rotation skills. After this test, the experiment group only played 11 sessions of the game Tetris. This game was chosen as it requires mental rotation. After this game, both groups took the test again. The result showed that the scores of the experiment group raised higher than that of the control group, thereby confirming this theory. The research showing benefits from action games has been questioned due to methodological shortcomings, such as recruitment strategies and selection bias, potential placebo effects, and lack of baseline improvements in control groups.

Like other media, such as rock music notably heavy metal music and gangsta rap , video games have been the subject of objections, controversies and censorship, for instance because of depictions of violence, criminal activities, sexual themes, alcohol , tobacco and other drugs , propaganda, profanity or advertisements.

Critics of video games include parents' groups, politicians, religious groups, scientists and other advocacy groups. Claims that some video games cause addiction or violent behavior continue to be made and to be disputed.

There have been a number of societal and scientific arguments about whether the content of video games change the behavior and attitudes of a player, and whether this is reflected in video game culture overall. Since the early s, advocates of video games have emphasized their use as an expressive medium , arguing for their protection under the laws governing freedom of speech and also as an educational tool.

Detractors argue that video games are harmful and therefore should be subject to legislative oversight and restrictions.

The positive and negative characteristics and effects of video games are the subject of scientific study. Results of investigations into links between video games and addiction , aggression , violence, social development , and a variety of stereotyping and sexual morality issues are debated.

In , the World Health Organization declared " gaming disorder " a mental disorder for people who are addicted to video games. In spite of the negative effects of video games, certain studies indicate that they may have value in terms of academic performance, perhaps because of the skills that are developed in the process. As summarized by The Guardian , [90] the study published in the International Journal of Communication "found that students who played online games almost every day scored 15 points above average in maths and reading tests and 17 points above average in science.

In an interview with CNN, Edward Castronova , a professor of Telecommunications at Indiana University Bloomington said he was not surprised by the outcome of the Australian study but also discussed the issue of causal connection.

It could just be that kids who are sharp are looking for a challenge, and they don't find it on social media, and maybe they do find it on board games and video games," he explained. Video games have also been proven to raise self-esteem and build confidence. It gives people an opportunity to do things that they cannot do offline, and to discover new things about themselves.

There is a social aspect to gaming as well — research has shown that a third of video game players make good friends online. As well as that, video games are also considered to be therapeutic as it helps to relieve stress. Self-determination theory SDT is a macro theory of human motivation based around competence, autonomy, and relatedness to facilitate positive outcomes. The ability to create an ideal image of ones self and being given multiple options to change that image gives a sense of satisfaction.

This topic has much controversy; it is unknown whether this freedom can be beneficial to ones character or detrimental. With increased game usage, a players can become too invested in a fictionally generated character, where the desire to look that way overpowers the enjoyment of the game [97]. Players see this character creation as entertainment and a release, creating a self image they could not obtain in reality, bringing comfort outside of the game from lack of investment to the fictional character.

Problems that arise based on character design may be link to personality disorders [98] [99]. Cognitive skills can be enhanced through repetition of puzzles , memory games, spatial abilities and attention control [94] [96] []. Most video games present opportunities to use these skills with the ability to try multiple times even after failure. Many of these skills can be translated to reality and problem solving. This allows the player to learn from mistakes and fully understand how and why a solution to a problem may work.

Some researchers believe that continual exposure to challenges may lead players to develop greater persistence over time after a study was shown that frequent players spent more time on puzzles in task that did not involve video games [95] [96].

Although players were shown to spend more time on puzzles, much of that could have been due to the positive effects of problem solving in games, which involve forming strategy and weighing option before testing a solution [94].

In a study that followed students through school, students that played video games showed higher levels of problem solving than students who did not [95]. This contradicts the previous study in that higher success rate was seen in video game players. Time being a factor for problem solving led to different conclusions in the different studies.

See video game controversies for more. Online gaming being on the rise allows for video game players to communicate and work together in order to accomplish a certain task. Being able to work as a group in a game translates well to reality and jobs, where people must work together to accomplish a task. Research on players in violent and non-violent games show similar results, where the players relations improved to improve synergy [89].

With the introduction of Wii Fit and VR virtual reality , exergame popularity has been increasing, allowing video game players to experience more active rather than sedentary game play. Due to exergaming being relatively new, there is still much to be researched.

No major differences were seen in tests with children that played on the Wii vs. Video game laws vary from country to country. Console manufacturers usually exercise tight control over the games that are published on their systems, so unusual or special-interest games are more likely to appear as PC games.

Free, casual, and browser-based games are usually played on available computers, mobile phones, tablet computers or PDAs. Various organisations in different regions are responsible for giving content ratings to video games. For example, a game might be rated "T" for "Teen" if the game contained obscene words or violence. If a game contains explicit violence or sexual themes, it is likely to receive an M for "Mature" rating, which means that no one under 17 should play it.

There are no laws that prohibit children from purchasing "M" rated games in the United States. Laws attempting to prohibit minors from purchasing "M" rated games were established in California, Illinois , Michigan , Minnesota , and Louisiana , but all were overturned on the grounds that these laws violated the First Amendment.

One of the most controversial games of all time, Manhunt 2 by Rockstar Studios, was given an AO rating by the ESRB until Rockstar could make the content more suitable for a mature audience.

Iceland is expected to join soon, as are the 10 EU accession states. The PEGI ratings are legally binding in Vienna and it is a criminal offence to sell a game to someone if it is rated above their age. Instead, they adopt their own system of certification which is required by law. The Unterhaltungssoftware Selbstkontrolle USK checks every game before release and assigns an age rating to it — either none white , 6 years of age yellow , 12 years of age green , 16 years of age blue or 18 years of age red.

It is forbidden for anyone, retailers, friends or parents alike, to allow a child access to a game for which he or she is underage. It is considered a felony to supply these games to a child. The Computer Entertainment Rating Organization CERO that rates video games and PC games except dating sims , visual novels , and eroge in Japan with levels of rating that informs the customer of the nature of the product and for what age group it is suitable.

It was established in July as a branch of Computer Entertainment Supplier's Association , and became an officially recognized non-profit organization in The research firm anticipated that Asia would soon overtake North America as the largest video game market due to the strong growth of free-to-play and mobile games.

Sales of different types of games vary widely between countries due to local preferences. Japanese consumers tend to purchase much more handheld games than console games and especially PC games , with a strong preference for games catering to local tastes. Computer games are also popular in China. Gaming conventions are an important showcase of the industry.

The annual gamescom in Cologne in August is the world's leading expo for video games in attendance. Some publishers, developers and technology producers also host their own regular conventions, with BlizzCon , QuakeCon , Nvision and the X shows being prominent examples.

Short for electronic sports, are video game competitions played most by professional players individually or in teams that gained popularity from the late s, the most common genres are fighting , first-person shooter FPS , multiplayer online battle arena MOBA and real-time strategy.

There are certain games that are made for just competitive multiplayer purposes. With those type of games, players focus entirely one choosing the right character or obtaining the right equipment in the game to help them when facing other players. Tournaments are held so that people in the area or from different regions can play against other players of the same game and see who is the best.

The players that compete in these tournaments are given a rank depending on their skill level in the game that they choose to play in and face other players that play that game.

The players that also compete are mostly called professional players for the fact that they have played the game they are competing in for many, long hours. Those players have been able to come up with different strategies for facing different characters.

The professional players are able to pick a character to their liking and be able to master how to use that character very effectively. With strategy games , players tend to know how to get resources quick and are able to make quick decisions about where their troops are to be deployed and what kind of troops to create.

Creators will nearly always copyright their games. Laws that define copyright, and the rights that are conveyed over a video game, vary from country to country. Usually a fair use copyright clause allows consumers some ancillary rights, such as for a player of the game to stream a game online.

This is a vague area in copyright law, as these laws predate the advent of video games. This means that rightsholders often must define what they will allow a consumer to do with the video game. There are many video game museums around the world, including the National Videogame Museum in Frisco, Texas, [] which serves as the largest museum wholly dedicated to the display and preservation of the industry's most important artifacts.

Pac-Man , Dragon's Lair , and Pong. The Museum of Modern Art has added a total of 20 video games and one video game console to its permanent Architecture and Design Collection since From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Video Games disambiguation. List of arcade video games List of best-selling video games List of best-selling video game franchises List of highest-grossing arcade games List of video games considered the best List of Game of the Year awards List of video games notable for negative reception.

History of video games. Early history of video games. Educational video games and Educational software. Video game industry practices. Video game console emulator. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Women and video games. Race and video games. Video game behavioral effects.

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Archived from the original on 8 August Video games' bad reputation may be unfair. Teens who were regular gamers scored higher than average in math, reading and science on an international exam, a new study found. Education psychology in practice. Retrieved 11 April The Psychology of Video Games. Archived from the original on 19 April A systematic review of the literature". Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. Cross-sectional evidence of pathology in video game addicts as compared to matched healthy controls".

Journal of Affective Disorders. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. International Journal of Exercise Science. Archived from the original on 24 December Retrieved 20 January British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved 23 November The video games covered by the VRA are those whose exemption is forfeited under section 2 2 because they depict human sexual activity, gross violence or other matters of concern.

Archived from the original on 17 September Archived from the original on 2 June Retrieved 31 May Global Games Market Report May Archived from the original on 24 May Archived from the original on 27 December Retrieved 26 December Archived from the original on 9 June Retrieved 17 March Retrieved 17 September Archived from the original on 23 January Retrieved 18 October


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