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Brilliant though mate — so much work in this, and so comprehensive. Presentation refers to the physical evidence that signals the retail image. At least two stores that I used to frequent here no longer exist, and in doing the research for this guide I came across a third that was in the process of closing. Shopping arcades were the precursor to the modern shopping mall. CRO stands for conversion rate optimization, which you can only do through data-driven optimization and decision making. Take a look closely at the water!

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In addition to men's and women's clothing, shoes, and accessories, there are also choices for the littlest members of the family, including school clothes and sneakers for kids and everyday essentials for baby. Within this broad mix, you'll find the clothing, shoes, jewelry, and watches you need and want—plus excellent gift ideas for anyone on your list.

Amazon Fashion also has featured shops that cater to specific needs. This makes it easy to find special sizes—such as plus, petite, and big and tall clothing as well as extended shoe sizes—and fashion items for specific occasions, whether you need options to wear to work, on vacation, or to the gym.

We also share new trends, how-to-wear-it ideas, and styling tips that will help you focus on need-now updates, from the latest must-have style of jeans, to the ideal layering piece to wear in-between seasons, or a pair of running shoes made with the latest technology. For even more fashion insights, find us on Facebook Facebook. Learn more about Amazon Prime. Amazon Fashion Amazon Fashion is a one-stop destination for head-to-toe style. Your recently viewed items and featured recommendations.

Once the strategic retail plan is in place, retailers devise the retail mix which includes product, price, place, promotion, personnel and presentation. In the digital age , an increasing number of retailers are seeking to reach broader markets by selling through multiple channels, including both bricks and mortar and online retailing.

Digital technologies are also changing the way that consumers pay for goods and services. Retailing support services may also include the provision of credit, delivery services, advisory services, stylist services and a range of other supporting services.

Shopping streets may restrict traffic to pedestrians only. Sometimes a shopping street has a partial or full roof to create a more comfortable shopping environment — protecting customers from various types of weather conditions such as extreme temperatures, winds or precipitation.

Forms of non-shop retailing include online retailing a type of electronic-commerce used for business-to-consumer B2C transactions and mail order. Retail comes from the Old French word tailler , which means "to cut off, clip, pare, divide" in terms of tailoring It was first recorded as a noun with the meaning of a "sale in small quantities" in from the Middle French retail , "piece cut off, shred, scrap, paring".

Retail refers to the activity of reselling. A retailer is any person or organisation is a reseller who sells goods or services directly to consumers or end-users. In some jurisdictions or regions, legal definitions of retail specify that at least 80 percent of sales activity must be to end-users. Retailing often occurs in retail stores or service establishments, but may also occur through direct selling such as through vending machines, door-to-door sales or electronic channels.

Retail service providers include retail banking, tourism, insurance, private healthcare, private education, private security firms, legal firms, publishers, public transport and others. For example, a tourism provider might have a retail division that books travel and accommodation for consumers plus a wholesale division that purchases blocks of accommodation, hospitality, transport and sightseeing which are subsequently packaged into a holiday tour for sale to retail travel agents.

Some retailers badge their stores as "wholesale outlets" offering "wholesale prices. Different jurisdictions set parameters for the ratio of consumer to business sales that define a retail business. Retail markets have existed since ancient times. Archaeological evidence for trade, probably involving barter systems, dates back more than 10, years.

As civilizations grew, barter was replaced with retail trade involving coinage. These markets typically occupied a place in the town's centre. Surrounding the market, skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers, occupied permanent premises in alleys that led to the open market-place.

These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but also prepared goods for sale on market days. In ancient Rome , trade took place in the forum. Rome had two forums; the Forum Romanum and Trajan's Forum. The latter was a vast expanse, comprising multiple buildings with shops on four levels.

The Roman forum was arguably the earliest example of a permanent retail shop-front. The Phoenicians , noted for their seafaring skills, plied their ships across the Mediterranean, becoming a major trading power by the 9th century BCE.

The Phoenicians imported and exported wood, textiles, glass and produce such as wine, oil, dried fruit and nuts. Their trading skills necessitated a network of colonies along the Mediterranean coast, stretching from modern day Crete through to Tangiers and onto Sardinia [10] The Phoenicians not only traded in tangible goods, but were also instrumental in transporting culture.

The Phoenician's extensive trade networks necessitated considerable book-keeping and correspondence. In around BCE, the Phoenicians developed a consonantal alphabet which was much easier to learn that the complex scripts used in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Phoenician traders and merchants were largely responsible for spreading their alphabet around the region. In the Graeco-Roman world, the market primarily served the local peasantry. Local producers, who were generally poor, would sell small surpluses from their individual farming activities, purchase minor farm equipment and also buy a few luxuries for their homes.

Major producers such as the great estates were sufficiently attractive for merchants to call directly at their farm-gates, obviating the producers' need to attend local markets. The very wealthy landowners managed their own distribution, which may have involved exporting and importing. The nature of export markets in antiquity is well documented in ancient sources and archaeological case studies. The rise of retailing and marketing in England and Europe has been extensively studied, but less is known about developments elsewhere.

In Medieval England and Europe, relatively few permanent shops were to be found; instead customers walked into the tradesman's workshops where they discussed purchasing options directly with tradesmen.

In 13th century London, mercers and haberdashers were known to exist and grocers sold "miscellaneous small wares as well as spices and medicines" but fish and other perishables were sold through markets, costermongers, hucksters, peddlers or other type of itinerant vendor. In the more populous cities, a small number of shops were beginning to emerge by the 13th century. In Chester , a medieval covered shopping arcade represented a major innovation that attracted shoppers from many miles around.

Known as " The Rows" this medieval shopping arcade is believed to be the first of its kind in Europe. Medieval shops had little in common with their modern equivalent. As late as the 16th century, London's shops were described as little more than "rude booths" and their owners "bawled as loudly as the itinerants.

The shutters were designed to open so that the top portion formed a canopy while the bottom was fitted with legs so that it could serve as a shopboard. Glazed windows, which were rare during the medieval period, and did not become commonplace until the eighteenth century, meant that shop interiors were dark places. Outside the markets, goods were rarely out on display and the service counter was unknown.

Shoppers had relatively few opportunities to inspect the merchandise prior to consumption. Many stores had openings onto the street from which they served customers. Outside the major cities, most consumable purchases were made through markets or fairs. Markets were held daily in the more populous towns and cities or weekly in the more sparsely populated rural districts. Markets sold fresh produce; fruit, vegetables, baked goods, meat, poultry, fish and some ready to eat foodstuffs; while fairs operated on a periodic cycle and were almost always associated with a religious festival.

Market towns dotted the medieval European landscape while itinerant vendors supplied less populated areas or hard-to-reach districts. Peddlers and other itinerant vendors operated alongside other types of retail for centuries. Blintiff has investigated the early Medieval networks of market towns across Europe, and suggests that by the 12th century there was an upsurge in the number of market towns and the emergence of merchant circuits as traders bulked up surpluses from smaller regional, different day markets and resold them at the larger centralised market towns.

The Grand Bazaar in Istanbul is often cited as the world's oldest continuously-operating market; its construction began in The Spanish conquistadors wrote glowingly of markets in the Americas. In the 15th century the Mexica Aztec market of Tlatelolco was the largest in all the Americas.

English market towns were regulated from a relatively early period. The English monarchs awarded a charter to local Lords to create markets and fairs for a town or village. This charter would grant the lords the right to take tolls and also afford some protection from rival markets. For example, once a chartered market was granted for specific market days, a nearby rival market could not open on the same days.

Purchase decisions were based on purchase criteria such as consumers' perceptions of the range, quality, and price of goods. This informed decisions about where to make their purchases and which markets were superior.

Braudel and Reynold have made a systematic study of these European market towns between the thirteenth and fifteenth century. Their investigation shows that in regional districts markets were held once or twice a week while daily markets were common in larger cities.

Gradually over time, permanent shops with regular trading days began to supplant the periodic markets, while peddlers filled in the gaps in distribution. The physical market was characterised by transactional exchange and the economy was characterised by local trading.

English essayist, Joseph Addison , writing in , described the exotic origin of produce available to English society in the following terms:. He found that there were many different types of reseller operating out of the markets. For example, in the dairy trade, cheese and butter was sold by the members of two craft guilds i.

Resellers and direct sellers increased the number of sellers, thus increasing competition, to the benefit of consumers. Direct sellers, who brought produce from the surrounding countryside, sold their wares through the central market place and priced their goods at considerably lower rates than cheesemongers. By the 17th century, permanent shops with more regular trading hours were beginning to supplant markets and fairs as the main retail outlet.

Provincial shopkeepers were active in almost every English market town. These shopkeepers sold general merchandise, much like a contemporary convenience store or a general store. For example, William Allen, a mercer in Tamworth who died in , sold spices alongside furs and fabrics.

His autobiography reveals that he spent most of his time preparing products for sale at the central market, which brought an influx of customers into town. As the number of shops grew, they underwent a transformation. The trappings of a modern shop, which had been entirely absent from the sixteenth and early seventeenth century store, gradually made way for store interiors and shopfronts that are more familiar to modern shoppers.

Prior to the eighteenth century, the typical retail store had no counter, display cases, chairs, mirrors, changing-rooms, etc. However, the opportunity for the customer to browse merchandise, touch and feel products began to be available, with retail innovations from the late 17th and early 18th centuries.

English commentators pointed to the speed at which glazing was installed, Daniel Defoe, writing in , noted that "Never was there such painting and guildings, such sashings and looking-glasses as the shopkeepers as there is now. Outside the major metropolitan cities, few stores could afford to serve one type of clientele exclusively.

However, gradually retail shops introduced innovations that would allow them to separate wealthier customers from the "riff raff.

This allowed the sale of goods to the common people, without encouraging them to come inside. Another solution, that came into vogue from the late sixteenth century was to invite favoured customers into a back-room of the store, where goods were permanently on display.

Yet another technique that emerged around the same time was to hold a showcase of goods in the shopkeeper's private home for the benefit of wealthier clients. Samuel Pepys, for example, writing in , describes being invited to the home of a retailer to view a wooden jack.

Savitt has argued that by the eighteenth century, American merchants, who had been operating as importers and exporters, began to specialise in either wholesale or retail roles. They tended not to specialise in particular types of merchandise, often trading as general merchants, selling a diverse range of product types. These merchants were concentrated in the larger cities.

They often provided high levels of credit financing for retail transactions. By the late eighteenth century, grand shopping arcades began to emerge across Europe and in the Antipodes. A shopping arcade refers to a multiple-vendor space, operating under a covered roof. Typically, the roof was constructed of glass to allow for natural light and to reduce the need for candles or electric lighting.

Some of the earliest examples of shopping arcade appeared in Paris, due its lack of pavement for pedestrians. Retailers, eager to attract window shoppers by providing a shopping environment away from the filthy streets, began to construct rudimentary arcades.

For Parisians, the location was seen as too remote and the arcade closed within two years of opening. However, prices were never a deterrent, as these new arcades came to be the place to shop and to be seen.

Arcades offered shoppers the promise of an enclosed space away from the chaos that characterised the noisy, dirty streets; a warm, dry space away from the elements, and a safe-haven where people could socialise and spend their leisure time.

As thousands of glass covered arcades spread across Europe, they became grander and more ornately decorated.

By the mid nineteenth century, they had become prominent centres of fashion and social life. Promenading in these arcades became a popular nineteenth century pass-time for the emerging middle classes. The Illustrated Guide to Paris of summarized the appeal of arcades in the following description:. The Palais-Royal, which opened to Parisians in and became one of the most important marketplaces in Paris, is generally regarded as the earliest example in the grand shopping arcades.

The retail outlets specialised in luxury goods such as fine jewellery, furs, paintings and furniture designed to appeal to the wealthy elite. Retailers operating out of the Palais complex were among the first in Europe to abandon the system of bartering, and adopt fixed-prices thereby sparing their clientele the hassle of bartering.

Stores were fitted with long glass exterior windows which allowed the emerging middle-classes to window shop and indulge in fantasies, even when they may not have been able to afford the high retail prices.

Thus, the Palais-Royal became one of the first examples of a new style of shopping arcade, frequented by both the aristocracy and the middle classes. Shopping arcades were the precursor to the modern shopping mall. While the arcades were the province of the bourgeoisie, a new type of retail venture emerged to serve the needs of the working poor. John Stuart Mill wrote about the rise of the co-operative retail store, which he witnessed first-hand in the mid-nineteenth century.

Stuart Mill locates these co-operative stores within a broader co-operative movement which was prominent in the industrial city of Manchester and in the counties of Yorkshire and Lancashire. Buyer and seller meet as friends; there is no overreaching on one side, and no suspicion on the other These crowds of humble working men, who never knew before when they put good food in their mouths, whose every dinner was adulterated, whose shoes let in the water a month too soon, whose waistcoats shone with devil's dust, and whose wives wore calico that would not wash, now buy in the markets like millionaires, and as far as pureness of food goes, live like lords.

The modern era of retailing is defined as the period from the industrial revolution to the 21st-century. The term, "department store" originated in America. In 19th century England, these stores were known as emporia or warehouse shops. Many of the early department stores were more than just a retail emporium; rather they were venues where shoppers could spend their leisure time and be entertained.

Some department stores offered reading rooms, art galleries and concerts. Most department stores had tea-rooms or dining rooms and offered treatment areas where ladies could indulge in a manicure. The fashion show, which originated in the US in around , became a staple feature event for many department stores and celebrity appearances were also used to great effect. Themed events featured wares from foreign shores, exposing shoppers to the exotic cultures of the Orient and Middle-East.

During this period, retailers worked to develop modern retail marketing practices. Pioneering merchants who contributed to modern retail marketing and management methods include: Retail, using mail order, came of age during the midth century. Although catalogue sales had been used since the 15th century, this method of retailing was confined to a few industries such as the sale of books and seeds.

However, improvements in transport and postal services, led several entrepreneurs on either side of the Atlantic to experiment with catalogue sales. In , Welsh draper Pryce Pryce-Jones sent catalogues to clients who could place orders for flannel clothing which was then despatched by post. This enabled Pryce-Jones to extend his client base across Europe.

He also devised the catch-phrase "satisfaction guaranteed or your money back" which was implemented in Edward Filene, a proponent of the scientific approach to retail management, developed the concept of the automatic bargain Basement.

If the merchandise remained unsold after two months, it was given to charity. He instituted a profit sharing program, a minimum wage for women, a hour work week, health clinics and paid vacations. He also played an important role in encouraging the Filene Cooperative Association, "perhaps the earliest American company union".

Through this channel he engaged constructively with his employees in collective bargaining and arbitration processes. In the post-war period, an American architect, Victor Gruen developed a concept for a shopping mall; a planned, self-contained shopping complex complete with an indoor plaza, statues, planting schemes, piped music, and car-parking.

Gruen's vision was to create a shopping atmosphere where people felt so comfortable, they would spend more time in the environment, thereby enhancing opportunities for purcahsing. The first of these malls opened at Northland Mall near Detroit in He went on to design some 50 such malls.

Due to the success of the mall concept, Gruen was described as "the most influential architect of the twentieth century by a journalist in the New Yorker. Throughout the twentieth century, a trend towards larger store footprints became discernible. The average size of a U. As the 21st century takes shape, some indications suggest that large retail stores have come under increasing pressure from online sales models and that reductions in store size are evident.

The distinction between "strategic" and "managerial" decision-making is commonly used to distinguish "two phases having different goals and based on different conceptual tools. Strategic planning concerns the choice of policies aiming at improving the competitive position of the firm, taking account of challenges and opportunities proposed by the competitive environment. On the other hand, managerial decision-making is focused on the implementation of specific targets.

In retailing, the strategic plan is designed to set out the vision and provide guidance for retail decision-makers and provide an outline of how the product and service mix will optimize customer satisfaction. As part of the strategic planning process, it is customary for strategic planners to carry out a detailed environmental scan which seeks to identify trends and opportunities in the competitive environment, market environment, economic environment and statutory-political environment.

The retail strategy is normally devised or reviewed every 3— 5 years by the chief executive officer. The strategic retail analysis typically includes following elements: At the conclusion of the retail analysis, the retail marketers should have a clear idea of which groups of customers are to be the target of marketing activities.

Research studies suggest that there is a strong relationship between a store's positioning and the socio-economic status of customers.

In a highly competitive market, the retail strategy sets up long-term sustainability. It focuses on customer relationships, stressing the importance of added value, customer satisfaction and highlights how the store's market positioning appeals to targeted groups of customers.

See also product management ; promotion mix ; marketing mix ; price ; servicescapes and retail design. Once the strategic plan is in place, retail managers turn to the more managerial aspects of planning.

A retail mix is devised for the purpose of coordinating day-to-day tactical decisions. The retail marketing mix typically consists of six broad decision layers including product decisions, place decisions, promotion, price, personnel and presentation also known as physical evidence.

A number of scholars have argued for an expanded marketing, mix with the inclusion of two new Ps, namely, Personnel and Presentation since these contribute to the customer's unique retail experience and are the principal basis for retail differentiation.

Yet other scholars argue that the Retail Format i. The primary product-related decisions facing the retailer are the product assortment what product lines, how many lines and which brands to carry ; the type of customer service high contact through to self-service and the availability of support services e.

These decisions depend on careful analysis of the market, demand, competition as well as the retailer's skills and expertise.

The term product assortment refers to the combination of both product breadth and depth. The main characteristics of a company's product assortment are: For a retailer, finding the right balance between breadth and depth can be a key to success. An average supermarket might carry 30,—60, different product lines product length or assortment , but might carry up to different types of toothpaste product depth. Costco, for example, carries 5, different lines while Aldi carries just 1, lines per store.

The first tests were planned to go live in Denver and Phoenix. None of these stores were rebranded. Walmart's UK subsidiary Asda which retained its name after being acquired by Walmart is based in Leeds and accounted for In contrast to the U.

In addition to small suburban Asda Supermarkets, which has locations, [2] larger stores are branded Supercentres, which has 32 locations. Walmart has joint ventures in China and several majority-owned subsidiaries. In February , Walmart announced that the company raised its stake to 51 percent in Chinese online supermarket Yihaodian to tap rising consumer wealth and help the company offer more products. Walmart took full ownership in July In November , the company announced a joint venture with Bharti Enterprises to operate in India.

As foreign corporations were not allowed to enter the retail sector directly, Walmart operated through franchises and handled the wholesale end of the business. On September 14, , the Government of India approved 51 percent FDI in multi-brand retails, subject to approval by individual states, effective September 20, In the mids, Walmart tried with a large financial investment to get a foothold in the German retail market.

In , Walmart took over the supermarket chain Wertkauf with its 21 stores for DM million [] and the following year Walmart acquired 74 Interspar stores for DM 1. As a result, Walmart's low price strategy yielded no competitive advantage.

Walmart's corporate culture was not viewed positively among employees and customers, particularly Walmart's "statement of ethics", which restricted relationships between employees and led to a public discussion in the media, resulting in a bad reputation among customers. The stores were sold to the German company Metro during Walmart's fiscal third quarter.

An April investigation by The New York Times reported the allegations of a former executive of Walmart de Mexico that, in September , the company had paid bribes via local fixers to officials throughout Mexico in exchange for construction permits, information, and other favors, which gave Walmart a substantial advantage over competitors.

Concerns were also raised that Walmart executives in the United States had "hushed up" the allegations. A follow-up investigation by The New York Times , published December 17, , revealed evidence that regulatory permission for siting, construction, and operation of nineteen stores had been obtained through bribery.

While an official Walmart report states that it had found no evidence of corruption, the article alleges that previous internal reports had indeed turned up such evidence before the story became public. In , there was an incident with CJ's Seafood, a crawfish processing firm in Louisiana that was partnered with Walmart, that eventually gained media attention for the mistreatment of its 40 H-2B visa workers from Mexico.

These workers experienced harsh living conditions in tightly packed trailers outside of the work facility, physical threats, verbal abuse and were forced to work day-long shifts. Many of the workers were afraid to take action about the abuse due to the fact that the manager threatened the lives of their family members in the U. Eight of the workers confronted management at CJ's Seafood about the mistreatment; however, the management denied the abuse allegations and the workers went on strike.

The workers then took their stories to Walmart due to their partnership with CJ's. While Walmart was investigating the situation, the workers collected , signatures of supporters who agreed that Walmart should stand by the workers and take action.

In June , the visa workers held a protest and day-long hunger strike outside of the apartment building where a Walmart board member resided. Following this protest, Walmart announced its final decision to no longer work with CJ's Seafood. The company has since shut down. Sam's Club is a chain of warehouse clubs that sell groceries and general merchandise , often in bulk. The first Sam's Club was opened by Walmart, Inc.

The chain was named after its founder Sam Walton. There are several locations in the United States in California and Oregon: San Bruno , Sunnyvale , Brisbane , and Portland. Marc Lore is the president and CEO. In February , Walmart agreed to buy Vudu , a Silicon Valley start-up whose online movie service is being built into an increasing number of televisions and Blu-ray players.

About 40 percent of products sold in Walmart are private label store brands , which are produced for the company through contracts with manufacturers. Walmart began offering private label brands in , with the launch of Sam's Choice , a line of drinks produced by Cott Beverages for Walmart. Sam's Choice quickly became popular and by , was the third-most-popular beverage brand in the United States.

A study talked of "the magnitude of mind-share Walmart appears to hold in the shoppers' minds when it comes to the awareness of private label brands and retailers. The Jensen Project also featured a preview of a product to be released in several months in Walmart stores. In September , Walmart purchased e-commerce company Jet. In New York where, as of , Jet operates, Parcel, a delivery service, [] was acquired September 29, Moosejaw brought with it partnerships with more than brands, including Patagonia , The North Face , Marmot , and Arc'teryx.

Marc Lore , Walmart's U. Following its completion, the website's management will report to Marc Lore. The company's business model is based on selling a wide variety of general merchandise at low prices. He has also worked as the head of Sam's Club and Walmart International. All Walmart stores in the U. Greeters are trained to help shoppers find what they want and answer their questions. For many years, associates were identified in the store by their signature blue vest, but this practice was discontinued in June and replaced with khaki pants and polo shirts.

The wardrobe change was part of a larger corporate overhaul to increase sales and rejuvenate the company's stock price. The vest is navy blue for Walmart employees at Supercenters and discount stores, lime green for Walmart Neighborhood Market employees and yellow for self check out associates; door greeters and customer service managers. Both state "Proud Walmart Associate" on the left breast and the "Spark" logo covering the back.

By requiring employees to wear uniforms that are made up of standard "street wear", Walmart is not required to purchase or reimbursement employees which is required in some states, as long as that clothing can be worn elsewhere. Businesses are only legally required to pay for branded shirts and pants or clothes that would be difficult to wear outside of work.

Unlike many other retailers, Walmart does not charge slotting fees to suppliers for their products to appear in the store. On September 14, , the company announced that it would phase out its layaway program, citing declining use and increased costs. Walmart now focuses on other payment options, such as increased use of six- and twelve-month, zero-interest financing. The layaway location in most stores is now used for Walmart's Site-To-Store program, which was introduced in March On September 15, , Walmart announced that it would build a new headquarters in Bentonville to replace its current building and consolidate operations that have spread out to 20 different buildings throughout Bentonville.

Walmart is governed by a fifteen-member board of directors elected annually by shareholders. Penner , son-in-law of S. Robson Walton and the grandson-in-law of Sam Walton, serves as chairman of the board.

Doug McMillon serves as president and chief executive officer. Sorenson, Jim Walton , S. Robson Walton, Christopher J. Williams, and Linda S.

Notable former members of the board include Hillary Clinton — [] and Tom Coughlin — , the latter having served as vice chairman. Clinton left the board before the U. Securities and Exchange Commission. These are held mainly by the Walton family , a number of institutions and funds. Walmart's move into the grocery business in the late s set it against major supermarket chains in both the United States and Canada. Several smaller retailers, primarily dollar stores , such as Family Dollar and Dollar General , have been able to find a small niche market and compete successfully against Walmart.

Walmart also had to face fierce competition in some foreign markets. Shinsegae re-branded the Walmarts as E-mart stores. Walmart struggled to export its brand elsewhere as it rigidly tried to reproduce its model overseas. In China, Walmart hopes to succeed by adapting and doing things preferable to Chinese citizens. For example, it found that Chinese consumers preferred to select their own live fish and seafood; stores began displaying the meat uncovered and installed fish tanks, leading to higher sales.

Walmart customers cite low prices as the most important reason for shopping there. Walmart customer's income is below the national average. Bush while only 23 percent supported senator John Kerry. Due to its prominence in the Bible Belt , Walmart is known for its "tradition of tailoring its service to churchgoing customers". In , Walmart took steps to expand its U. During a migration of the walmart. Electrode provides various developer enhancements and tools for the developer including Node.

Alex Grigoryan [] of Walmart Labs released a statement [] on Medium. As the largest retailer in the U. The big data sets are mined for use in predictive analytics , which allow the company to optimize operations by predicting customer's habits.

Walmart's datacenter is unofficially referred to as Area In April , Walmart acquired Kosmix to develop software for analyzing real-time data streams. The amount of data gathered by Walmart has raised privacy concerns.

Sam Walton believed that the company's contribution to society was the fact that it operated efficiently, thereby lowering the cost of living for customers, and, therefore, in that sense was a "powerful force for good", despite his refusal to contribute cash to philanthropic causes. He explained later in his autobiography, "We feel very strongly that Wal-Mart really is not , and should not be, in the charity business," stating "any debit has to be passed along to somebody—either shareholders or our customers.

Kenneth Stone, Professor of Economics at Iowa State University, in a paper published in Farm Foundation in , found that some small towns can lose almost half of their retail trade within ten years of a Walmart store opening.

He compared the changes to previous competitors small town shops have faced in the past—from the development of the railroads and the Sears Roebuck catalog to shopping malls.

He concludes that small towns are more affected by "discount mass merchandiser stores" than larger towns and that shop owners who adapt to the ever-changing retail market can "co-exist and even thrive in this type of environment. One study found Walmart's entry into a new market has a profound impact on its competition. When a Walmart opens in a new market, median sales drop 40 percent at similar high-volume stores, 17 percent at supermarkets and 6 percent at drugstores, according to a June study by researchers at several universities and led by the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College.

The leader of that study admits that this factor is stronger in smaller towns and doesn't apply to more urban areas saying "It'd be so tough to nail down what's up with Wal-Mart". This same study also found that the local retailers experience virtually no benefit. The study draws from three annual surveys of enterprises within a four-mile radius of a new Chicago Walmart and it "shows that the probability of going out of business was significantly higher for establishments close to that store".

The study illustrated how approximately jobs were lost due to the opening of the store, which is about equivalent to Walmart's employment in the area. The overall findings of this study reinforce the "contention that large-city Walmarts, like those in small towns, absorb retail sales from nearby stores without significantly expanding the market" as this is one of the first studies of Walmarts economic impacts on local economies.

These issues involve low wages , poor working conditions , inadequate health care , and issues involving the company's strong anti-union policies. This was found in a study by Oklahoma State University which states, "Walmart is found to have substantially lowered the relative unemployment rates of blacks in those counties where it is present, but to have had only a limited impact on relative incomes after the influences of other socio-economic variables were taken into account.

Walmart is the largest private employer in the United States, employing almost five times as many people as IBM , the second-largest employer.

In , a gender discrimination lawsuit, Dukes v. A class action suit was sought, which would have been the nation's largest in history, covering 1. There are seven business resource groups: Walmart has been subject to criticism from various groups and individuals, including labor unions , community groups, grassroots organizations, religious organizations, environmental groups, and the company's own customers and employees.

They have protested against the company's policies and business practices, including charges of racial and gender discrimination. In April , Walmart announced that it plans to eliminate eggs from battery cages from its supply chain by In March , Walmart was sued by former Director of Business Development Tri Huynh for claims of reporting misleading e-commerce performance results in favor of the company.

Huynh stated the company's move was an attempt to regain lost ground to competitor Amazon. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 18 September Multinational retail chain founded in the United States. This article is about the retail chain. For other uses, see Walmart disambiguation.

Walmart's official headquarters in Bentonville, Arkansas. Corporate website Commercial website. List of assets owned by Walmart. List of Walmart brands.

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